Physical Chemistry of Colloids and
Surfaces
Spring 2002
Tu, Th 6:307:50 p.m. DH 1102, Prof. Jim Schneider
Announcements  
Homework Assignments  
Handouts  
MathCad Examples  
Course Overview  
General Information  
Grading Policies  
Course Outline  
Colloidal Links 
5/1: Here are the solutions to the practice problems and a review of the material covered for the final exam. Please send me an email if you'd like to stop by and ask questions so I'm sure to be available.
4/25: The final exam will be Thursday, May 2nd in class. It will be closedbook and closednote. The exam will focus on the last part of the course, but keep in mind that you will need to understand many aspects of the earlier material to solve problems such as electrokinetics. Here are some practice problems for the final; we'll discuss the solutions in class Tuesday night. The equation sheet to be supplied with the final is here.
4/13: There is a small correction to Homework #7. The negative sign in the first equation should be switched to a positive sign. Please download a new copy of the homework set.
4/9: Lecture for Thursday, April 11th is canceled. To make up for the cancellation, we'll have a shorter lecture on Thursday, April 18th, the night before carnival. Thanks for your understanding.
4/1: Here is the answer key for Midterm II.
3/25: Here is a copy of Ray's overheads used during last week's lecture on the Derjaguin approximation and the Hamaker constant.
3/16: The second midterm is Thursday March 21st in class. Again, it will be closednote and closedbook. Here is the equation sheet you'll get with the exam and a practice exam to help you review.
3/1: You may skip the last problem on the latest homework set. Also, I included a sketch of aluminosilicate structure in the handouts section.
2/28: I'll return Midterm I in class tonight. A solution to the exam is posted in the handouts section.
2/26: The linearized BET equation will give a linear plot for 0.05 > x > 0.35. I've included a supplemental lecture on BET in the "handouts" section of the website.
2/26: I've added a section to the website for handouts, etc. that have been passed out in class.
2/18: Just to clarify, the exam tomorrow night will be closedbook and closednote. That means all you need to bring is a pencil, eraser, and calculator. Necessary equations will be provided (see below).
2/13: Here is an equation sheet you will be given along with the exam Tuesday.
2/13: Here is a practice exam and a solution to help you study for Midterm I.
2/13: The first midterm exam will be on Tuesday, February 19th from 6:309:00 p.m. in class (DH 1102). The exam will be closedbook and cover all lecture material through Thursday, February 21st, and Sections 1.11.2, 1.51.6, and 2.12.4 in the textbook. Numerical problems on the exam will only cover material from the first two homework sets.
1/30: For problem 3 on HW #1, the answer is very sensitive to the viscosity chosen. Please use a value of 0.0089 g/cms (0.89 cp) for problem 3.
1/18: A summary of some colloidal definitions is here.
HW#1 (1/22, due 1/31)
HW#1 solutions
HW#2 (1/31, due 2/12)
HW#2 solutions
HW#3 (2/12, due 2/19)
HW#3 solutions
HW#4 (2/21, due 3/5)
HW#4 solutions
HW#5 (3/5, due 3/14)
HW#5 solutions
HW#6 (3/26, due 4/9)
HW#6 solutions
HW#7 (4/9, due 4/18)
HW#7 solutions
HW#8 (4/18, due 4/30)
HW#8 solutions
Introduction
Gamboge
Brownian motion lectures
Gibbs dividing plane
Common applications of surfactants
Dynamic surface tension
BET surface area presentation
Exam I answer key
Isomorphic substitution in aluminosilicates
Monte Carlo simulation of electric doublelayer
So what is a colloid anyway? And what does this have to do with a surface?
A colloid is a twophase system consisting of
microscopic particles dispersed in a continuous fluid phase. The particles are so
tiny that thermal energy prevents them from settling, and in many ways they appear
homogeneous. Milk, latex paint, liquid soap, aerosols, and even beer are examples of
colloids. Under some conditions, the particles can be forced to aggregate and
precipitate, such as when milk curdles with the addition of an acid. As you might
imagine, the aggregation or dispersion of colloidal particles is largely determined by
attractive or repulsive forces felt between the surfaces of the particles. Because
colloidal particles have high surfacetovolume ratios, many other colloidal properties
have their roots in intersurface forces as well. Broader definitions of colloids
include any systems with a high surfacetovolume ratio, encompassing foams, vapor
bubbles, and particles dispersed in a solid phase. Colloids find widespread
industrial application, including oil recovery, separations, paints, adhesives,
biotechnology, food processing, and many more.
In this course, we provide an introduction to
colloid and surface science, with an overview of theoretical treatments of colloidal
processes, experimental methods, and industrial applications. Topics include
flocculation, colloidal forces, surfactancy, adsorption, adhesion, wetting, and
electrokinetic phenomena. The course is intended for juniors, seniors, and graduate
students in engineering, chemistry, physics, materials science, and biological sciences.
Instructor  Teaching Assistant 
Prof. Jim Schneider  Min Luo 
DH 3102A  DH A109 
2684394  2683984 
Office
Hours 5:006:30 p.m. Tu, Th 
Office
Hours 12:301:30 M, W 
schneider@cmu.edu  minl@andrew.cmu.edu 
Required text: The Colloidal Domain, Evans and
Wennerstrom (1999), WileyVCH
On reserve in E&S Library:
Physical Chemistry of Surfaces,
Adamson and Gast (1997), Wiley
Intermolecular and Surface Forces,
Israelachvili (1992), Academic Press
Principles of Colloid and Interface Science,
Hiemenz and Rajagopalan (1997), Marcel Dekker
Prerequisites: A basic familiarity with undergraduate
physical chemistry and/or chemical thermodynamics. Contact instructor if you have
questions.
For those considering the CPS option: This is the first in a
sequence of four required courses for the CPS option. To receive the option, you
will need to take Colloids Lab and Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules next fall and
Polymers Lab next spring.
Grading components: Your final grade will be a weighted average
of the following:
Midterm I 25% (In class, Tuesday Feb. 19th)
Midterm II 25% (In class, Thursday Mar. 21st)
Final Exam 25% (In class, Thursday May 2nd)
Homework 25%
Exams: Exams are closedbook. A sheet of equations to be
included with the exam will be distributed for your review one week before the exam.
You should bring a small calculator to perform simple math calculations. Only exams
missed as a result of a documented illness or emergency can be retaken. Interviews,
plant trips, etc. must be scheduled around the exam dates.
Homework: Homework is due at the beginning of class on the
assigned date. Homework submitted after this deadline will be scored for feedback
purposes, but will receive no credit.
Regrading: All requests for regrading must be submitted in writing
within one week of receipt of the graded homework or exam. The written request must
clearly identify the disputed work and justify the request for additional credit. A
randomly chosen fraction of homework and exams will be photocopied to verify that the
homework or exam was not altered after grading.
Topic  Lecture  Reading Assignment 
Introduction Terminology Examples of colloidal systems 
12  Introduction 
Transport
of colloidal particles Brownian motion Sedimentation Flocculation and colloidal stability 
35  Sec. 1.41.6 
Surface
energy Surface tension vs. surface energy Curved interfaces, Laplace equation Measuring surface energy Wetting and adhesion 
68  Sec. 2.12.3 
Surfactancy Surfactant properties Adsorption of soluble surfactants Surface isotherms of insoluble surfactants 
911  Sec. 2.42.6 
Molecularlevel
interactions Van der Waals interactions Electrostatic interactions 
1214  Sec. 3.13.8 
Selfassembled
colloids The critical micelle concentration Surfactant microstructures Thermodynamics of selfassembly 
1518  Sec.
1.11.3 Sec. 4.14.3 
Colloidal
forces Colloidal forces and colloid stability Electrostatic doublelayer forces Van der Waals forces Polymerinduced forces Hydrodynamic forces Measuring colloidal forces 
1922  Sec. 5.15.7 
Colloidal
stability DLVO theory and stability Aggregation kinetics 
2324  Sec. 8.18.3 
Electrokinetics The zeta potential Electrophoresis Electroosmosis The streaming potential 
2526  Sec. 8.4 
Colloids
in biology and medicine Liposomal drug delivery DNA and protein separation 
2728  handouts 
Center for
Complex Fluids Engineering at CMU http://cfe.cheme.cmu.edu/ 

ACS Colloid and
Surface Science Symposium at CMU last summer http://www.colloids2001.cheme.cmu.edu/ 

Digital
Instruments, major supplier of AFM instrumentation http://www.di.com/ 