Question 4.

Correct answer is d) discussion of papers relevant to a topic.




Different methodologies are used in psychological research to achieve specific purposes.  Some of the most important methodologies are listed here. When searching PsycINFO, you can limit your search to a particular methodology to find studies that match your preferred approach.


All of the articles below are on the same topic, social development and autism.  But their methodologies are different.  


Literature review  


Bruinsma, Y.,   Koegel, R. L., &  Koegel, L. K. (2004).   Joint Attention and Children with Autism: A Review of the Literature.  Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 10(3): 169-175.


Empirical study  


Robel, L.,  Ennouri, K., Piana, H., et al (2004).  Discrimination of Face Identities and Expressions in Children with Autism: Same or Different? European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry  13(4): 227-233.


Longitudinal study


Starr, E., Szatmari, P., Bryson, S., et al (2003).  Stability and Change among High-functioning Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A 2-Year Outcome Study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 33(1): 15-22.


Qualitative study


Jarusiewicz, B. (2002).  Efficacy of Neurofeedback for Children in the Autistic Spectrum: A Pilot Study.  Journal of Neurotherapy 6 (4): 39-49.




Sallows, G. O., &  Graupner, T.D. (2005).  Intensive Behavioral Treatment For Children With Autism: Four-Year Outcome and Predictors. American Journal on Mental  Retardation 110(6): 417-438.




Hollander, E., Swanson, E., Anagnostou, E., et al (2006). Liquid Fluoxetine versus Placebo for Repetitive Behaviors in Childhood Autism.  In J. L. Cummings (Ed),  Progress in Neurotherapeutics and Neuropsychopharmacology ( pp. 105-113). New York: Cambridge University Press.


Case study


Perry, R., Cohen, I.,  & DeCarlo, R. (1995).  Case Study: Deterioration, Autism, and Recovery in Two Siblings.  Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry l34(2): 232-237.