Research . . .

The ICE Notation

The notation describes shapes and configurations succinctly and accurately as a string, by means of its regulators.

In order to describe the various structures observed in architecture. I identified several classes of regulators. These include the following: (1) regulators based on geometric transformations, (2) regulators based on constraints, (3) regulators based on variations, (4) regulators based on hierarchies, and (5) regulators based on operations. A string would consist of a starting point/shape and a set of regulators. There are two forms of the notation: (1) a short form in which each regulator would have a symbol, a prefix depicting its category, (2) and a long form which additionally captures the regulators parameters and its dimension in the form of a superscript.

Examples of selected regulators in ICE


Composition strategies and generation methods in ICE

In addition to classifying regulators into categories and types, there were several challenges involved with designing the ICE notation. These include composition strategies, generation methods, and specifics of transformation for these regulating entities. For more information on the notation, and the complete set regulators and their functionality please refer to the following paper: Moustapha, Hoda. (2004) "A Formal Representation for Generation and Transformation in Design", the Generative CAD Systems Symposium (GCAD'04), Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh

ICE regulators describing shapes and configurations

A configuration defined in ICE is represented by means of a few regulators instead of being represented by its numerous points that define its boundary; therefore it's a shorter more concise representation. Furthermore, ICE captures a generation method for configuration as well as a set of applicable transformations to the configuration. ICE is comparable to a DNA for configurations, where a short sting sequence can define the generation pattern and transformation behavior of complex configurations.

A straight line through the generative process of sweeping a point along a translation regulator, a square is generated by sweeping a line; a cube is generated by sweeping a square. Similarly a circle is generated by sweep-rotating a line, and a cylinder is generated by sweeping a circle


Palladio's Villa Capra is described by the discrete application of consecutive reflection regulators

I have used the ICE notation to describe a sequence of drawings in a design studio as the transformation between these drawings. For more information, please see the following paper: Akin, Ö. and H. Moustapha (2004) "Formalizing Generation and Transformation in Design: a studio case study" - First International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition (DCC'04), Kluwer Academic publisher, the Netherlands