Practice Exam 1

Below is an example of the format and type of questions that you can expect on your first exam. All exams will have the same basic format. These questions are not necessarily the same ones that will appear on your exam but in general the exam will cover the same concepts. The exam will cover material from the first 7 chapters and lectures from January 16 to February 20.


Helpful Hints for taking the exam:

• You may use point form or phrases instead of full sentences as long as you make your meaning clear.

• Unless a question specifies an age range or an area of development, you may give examples from any age or area.

• If a question requires several examples, you may use several from the same context or you may use different contexts for each example.




1)There are several principles of development. Identify 2 principles and give a research finding/example of each (4 points)

Principle 1:


Research Finding 1:



Principle 2:


Research Finding 2:




2) List 2 types of research design and give an example of each, making sure to include the major characteristics and 1 disadvantage of each. (4 points)

Type 1:

Example 1:




Type 2:

Example 2:




3) Psychologists from different theoretical frameworks offer contrasting answers to the key developmental questions. List one (1) strong proponent of each of the following positions. Feel free to list a specific psychologist’s name OR the name of the theory (Framework). You may use the same name or theory more than once if it applies. (5 points)

Early experience and modeling:

Genetically determined change:

Interaction of nature and nurture:

Interaction of biological, cognitive, and societal forces:

A child’s active role in development:



4) Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a recessive gene disorder. If a father is heterozygous for the trait and a mother is heterozygous for the trait, answer the following (6 points)

A. What are the possible Genotypes of the offspring:



B. What is the chance that an offspring will have PKU?



C. Does the offspring's genotype determine it's phenotype? Why or Why not?

Yes No (circle one)




5) Researchers often use twin studies to understand genetic contributions to development. List and briefly describe two possible confounds with this approach. (2 points)






6) List the three (3) periods of prenatal development in order, the timeframe of each and indicate the major changes that occur during each. (3 points)

1st Period:



2nd Period:



3rd Period:


7) Define "teratogen", list two (2) specific examples, and indicate one (1) reason that the effects of teratogens are difficult to predict. (4 points)


Example 1:

Example 2:

Reason for prediction difficulty:



8) List three (3) maternal factors that can negatively influence prenatal development and indicate the possible effects of each factor (6 points)

Factor 1:



Factor 2:



Factor 3:



9) Give 2 examples of how changes in one domain (e.g., biological, perceptual, cognitive, social) can contribute to developments in another, seemingly unrelated domain. (2 points)

Example 1:



Example 2:




10) Describe the basic procedure in Piaget's object permanence task and describe 2 different explanations that researchers have used to account for the error. (4 points)



Explanation 1:



Explanation 2:

11) Give one (1) example of how development proceeds in a cephalocaudal and proximodistal pattern. (2 points)

Cephalocaudal Example:



Proximodistal Example:



12) Describe the habituation paradigm in general and then describe a particular research in perception that used the paradigm. In your research description briefly describe the research question (what were they trying to find out), method, and the finding (5 points)



Research Question:

Research Method:


Research Finding:



13) Name and define the basic structural unit and the two mechanisms of change in Piaget's theory and give an example of how these mechanisms would lead to development in one (1) behavior. (5 points)

Basic Structural Unit:

Mechanism 1:




Mechanism 2:

Example :

14) List 2 theoretical frameworks and an example of how researchers from each framework might explain feeding patterns in young infants (4 points)

Framework 1:



Framework 2:



15) Give one (1) example of how developmental researchers can encourage application of their findings by professionals or the public in each of the following ways. Feel free to refer to one finding that could be applied in both cases OR to use two different findings. Be sure to specify both the research finding to be applied AND the impact of its application on child development. (4 points)