Gallery -- Images for Lecture

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You are now in Gallery -- Part III

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1.  This ear spool of gold, turquoise, quartz, and shell was found in the tomb of the warrior priest in the Moche site of Sipan, Peru, ca 300 C.E.
2.  The Pyramid of the Sun stands near the southern end of Teotihuacan's great central thuroughfare, the Avenue of the Dead.
3.  This reproduction of one of the remarkable murals found at the Maya site of Bonampak shows the presentation of captives to the city's ruler, Chan Muan.
4.  "Embroidered Mantle with Bird Impersonators"  Fine textiles were a source of prestige and wealth in ancient Peruvian societies.  This mantle was made by the people of the Paracas culture on the south coast of Peru around 50-100 C.E.
5.  A sixteenth-century Aztec drawing depicts a battle in the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
6.  Viceroyalties in Latin America in 1780.
7.  Smallpox had a devestating effect on Native American populations.
8.  The Algonquian village of Secoton, painted by John white in the sixteenth century.
9.  Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan.
10.  Quetzalcoatl.
11.  Tlaloc.
12.  Contemporary Indians at Lake Titicaca offer a sacrifical llama for the prospect of bountiful crops.
13.  An illustration of Tenochtitlan's foundation myth--the vision of an eagle perched on a cactus devouring a serpent.
14.  Tenochtitlan.
15.  An Aztec artist drew a Cortes who looked as MesoAmerican as Dona Marina, or Malinche, his Nahuatal speaking counsel.
16.  A European artist portrayed Montezuma as a Greco-Roman warrior.
17.  The last Aztec emporer was Cuauhtemoc.  For his valor in the face of torture and death, romantically portrayed in this late 19th-century painting by Leandro Izaguirre.
18.  New World food crops brought far greater treasure to the Old World that the gold and silver that first caught the attentions of Spanish explorers.
19.  The transformation of Tenochtitlan into Mexico City began when Hernan Cortes replaced the Great Temple, dedicated to the Aztec gods Tlaloc and Huitzilopochtli, with a Christian cathedral.
20.  The Metamorphosis of the Americas inspired subjective, dreamlike interpretations from both worlds--such as the  . . . nightmarish portrait of a weapon-wielding, man-headed horse, rendered by a vanquished Aztec.
21.  A new mixture of peoples -- Indian, European, and African--was a result of the Columbian exchange, and a new racial caste system stratified Mexico in place of the old Aztec social order.
22.  Importing horses to the New World.
23.  Cattle, working in tandem with African slaves, were widely used in the production of sugar, which was the chief colonial export in tropical regions of the New World.
24.  A Spanish cavalryman.
25.  The Ceres, sailing for Liverpool with a cargo of sugar and coffee in 1804, was part of the new economic order set in motion by Columbus.  Before 1492, European economic interests were centered around the Mediterranean.  After 1492, markets and empires unfurled across the Atlantic and Pacific until they spanned the globe.
26.  Sugar cane.
27.  Sicilian sugarcane processing, around 1600.
28.  "Sharing them with swarms of flies, we can almost taste the sweets of the confectioner," a British historian wrote of this rendering of a 19th-century Hindu shop.
29.  Sugar as a medicinal in the mecieval European pharmacy.
30.  Everything connected with the production of sugar--the cane, the mills, the technology, the plantation system, and the slave labor--was imported to the New World from the Old.
31.  Diagram of an 1820s slave ship.
32.  The 18th century  transatlantic economy of the British colonies, often visualized as a triangle, was fueled by three major commodities--slaves, sugar, and rum--and a variety of ancillary goods.  For instance, American merchants regularly made calls in Surinam on the northern coast of South America where they traded horses and tobacco for sugar products.
33.  Until recent inflationary times, penny candy was a virtual birhtright of American children.
34.  Advertisement.
35.  Slaves lived under such harsh conditions on Caribbean sugar plantations that their own natural population growth could not keep up with losses to disease, hard labor, and malnutrition.  Their ranks had to be constantly replenished with frequent importations from Africa.
36.  An African named Cinque led a revolt of fellow captives on the slave ship Amistad in 1839.
37.  The plantation system put a European stamp on the New World landscape.  This 19th century illustration of a sugar plantationon Antigua is so Old World that only the palm trees give a clue to the scene's New World location.
38.  In the 17th Century, draft animals powered the mills used to extract the juice from the sugarcane.
39.  Cultural extremes developed in close proximity on the New World sugar plantations.  The sugar works at Galway, elegantly Georgian but massive, looms over the more indigenous but flimsy homes of the slaves.
40.  Monday through Saturday slaves were in the field by dawn.  They got a half-hour off for breakfast and an hour or so for a midday meal, served in the field.  They worked again until dark at six-thirty or seven.
41. Intermarriage, friendship, religious affiliation, and other affirmative links bound Spanish colonials and native peoples.  In accentuating the problems of colonial oppression, Las Casas did not enumerate the many examples of positive cultural interaction.
42.  The Missionary priest Bartolome de las Casas brought the plight of the New World Indians to the attention of the Spanish Mmonarch, which ultimatley led to reform in colonial dealings with natives.
43.  Creating Frightful images of scenes he had never witnessed, the 16th century Dutch artist Theodore de Bry was particularly successful at warping the intent of the Las Casas report.
44.  The support of the Spanish-speaking world for the cause of the American Revolution is a little-known facet of the conflict.  Donations from Hispanic settlers across North America helped finance the American victory at Yorktown.
45.  Native Americans.
46.  The Old World deseases, especially smallpox, brought devastation to the Native American tribes.
47.  Drawings on a cotton cloth record major historical events among the Sioux over a period from 1798 to 1902, not the least of which were smallpox epidemics in 1810, 1837, and 1844.
48.  Illustration of Aztec long distance travel and trade.
49.  Of all the pre-Columbian cultures, the Moche of Peru left the most numerous representations of physical maladies.  This seemingly defaced visage probably was intended to illustrate leishmaniasis, an insect-borne disease that causes the sufferer's lips and nose to decompose.
50.  Of all the pre-Columbian cultures, the Moche of Peru left the most numerous representations of physical maladies.  Their ceramic artifacts depict such afflictions as missing limbs.
51.  Trephination is a surgical treatment for skull fractures in which a portion of the bone of the skull is removed.  Old and New World peoples developed the procedure indepedantly, and it was widely practiced by the Inca.
52.  A Spanish soldier taking a treatment for syphilis attests to the staggering dimensions of the disease in Europe in the years shortly after Colombus and his men returned from the New World.
53.  For centuries the collection and preparation of herbs formed the cornerstone of disease treatment in the Old and New World alike.  On Columbus's first voyage, searchers looked for plants with possible medicinal value to take back to Europe.
54.  Big, beautiful, delectable, and martketable, the wild turkey was first a casualty and is now a symbol of the exploitive habits of the colonizers of North America.  By the early 1800s, commercail hunting had brought the wild turkey to virtual extinction.  A 15th century Aztec rendering, a 16th century drawing by a german artist, and a 19th century painting by John James Audobon demonstrated that the wild turkey captured the attention of all cultures that encountered it.
55.  Introductions of exotic flora and fauna into North America, whether by design or accident, often have had dismaying results.  Kudzu was brought from Japan in 1911 as a livestock foliage that would also combat erosion and fix nitrogen in the soil.  Instead, the exotic legume outcompetes the native flora and now blankets parts of the Southeast.
56.  John James Audobon's painting of he Bachman's warbler is a portrait of the different routes toward extinction.  The tiny bird, which nests in bottomland hardwoods of the southeastern United States and winters in similar habitat only in Cuba, is unlikely to pull out of its progressions towards extinction.  Audobon perched the warbler on . . .  a camelia that became extinct in the wild by 1803, probably because of rapacious collecting.
57.  The heavy toll on Indian populations wrought by European diseases, the rise of immigration from the Old World to the New, and miscegentation among Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves profoundly altered the ethnic composition of Mexico and Peru during the colonial period.