Lecture 30

(Next moving to Chapter 19)
  CURMUDGEON GENERAL'S WARNING. These "slides" represent highlights from lecture and are neither complete nor meant to replace lecture. It is advised not to use these as a reliable means to replace missed lecture material. Do so at risk to healthy academic performance in 09-105.

Lecture Outline

Intermolecular Interactions
  • Molecular Basis of Solubility

Oxidation Numbers

Some definitions relevant to discussions on solubility.
What effects determine solubility?
The dependence of the solubilities of different alcohols on their molecular structure
Interpretation of alcohol solubilities in terms of molecular structure and intermolecular interactions
 Another comparison to make.  
Vitamin A shown here is essentially a nonpolar molecule. It is very polarizable because of its "size" (and also because pi electrons are very polarizable, a detail we haven't worried about and will not). Consequently, it is not very soluble in water but quite soluble in a nonpolar solvent such as "fat" (which is mostly hydrocarbon-like in nature).
In contrast to Vitamin A, you can see here from the structure of Vitamin C that extensive hydrogen bonding with solvent water molecules should be possible, explaining why it is a water soluble vitamin.
Acetic acid, as a small, polar molecule capable of hydrogen bonding with water is very soluble in water. You might reasonably expect it to be insolube in nonpolar solvents. However, a subtle phenomenon causes acetic acid to be soluble in nonpolar solvents as well. See below.
Acetic acid can effectively "dimerize", form a double structure held togeter very effectively by a geometrical arrangement that accommodates double hydrogen bonding. The resulting structure has no dipole moment. The "dimer" can then serve as a solvent in nonpolar solvents.
Our rules for oxidation numbers. These are "heirarchical", that is, each rule's rank determines their importance relative to other rules. They are not the same as in Table 4.3.
Oxidation number rules continued
Oxidation number rules continued