Arm Swinging - Simulation
Animations of the Mathematical Model: We found several modes of passive dynamic arm swinging with the same model parameters but different initial conditions, including: Normal arm swinging (left) where the right arm and left leg are in phase; Anti-Normal arm swinging (second from left) where the right arm and right leg are in phase; Mid-Phase swinging (second from right) where the arms are 90 degrees out of phase with the legs; and Parallel arm swinging (right) where the right arm and left arm are in phase. In each of these modes, no actuation or control was provided at the shoulder. Instead, the swinging motion arose naturally from the passive dynamics of the mechanical system. We think the same passive-dynamic effects make human arm swinging easy. See attached article for details. Animations by Steve Collins.Download: AVI (1 MB).