to Botai Discovery [links
to Main Virtual Museum, Art Gallery, Class]
Learn about geography,Botai
weaving, and ancient rituals. Play a game and take a quiz!
1993, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History has been collaborating
with the University of North Kazakhstan and the North Kazakhstan History
Museum in the invastigation of the Botai culture.
Botai culture is located in northern Kazakhstan[insert
link to a map of Kazakhstan- possibly with zoom in capabilites].
Kazakhstan is located in central Asia, just west of China and south
of Russia.Kazakhstan is a relatively flat and dry country and the land
is made up of vast steppes (wide open
spaces). The temperature is very cold in the winter with harsh winds.
The Botai culture is known by three large sites. They are the settlement
of Botai, Krasnyi Yar, and Vasilkovka. The Botai culture is termed Eneolithic
(c. 3700-3100 BC). The site of Botai is located on the Iman-Burluk River,
a tributary of the Ishim, in Kokshetav Oblast.
site offers important clues about the domestication of horses. Horse
domestication has had enormous impacts on transport and globalization
throughout the world. Since there are great numbers of wild horses in
Northern Kazakhstan, local cultures would be dependent on horses over
other animals. The Botai people may have rode horses for transport.
They may be the earliest known horse riders.Horses would have allowed
the Botai people to traverse vast distances.
people used horses as their main source of food and drink a mare's milk
drink called koumiss.[link to picture of woman
milking cow] This may provide evidence that the Botais were milking
have found remains of Botain civilizations and villages that are over
5500 years old.
Through their digging, they found horse bones which they can trace back
to Botain settlements.
have discovered horse burial sites that lend information on different
ritual practices at the Botai sites.
people made their clothes from horse skin. [see
some modern Botai fashion here-link to our fashions]The Botai
people used the bones of horses and other animals to make tools and
artifacts.[link to artifacts on virtual museum
did the Botai people make cordage for clothing? [insert
illustrations of procedure here]
to make Botai cordage
- Take a
branch of wood
the stem off
the stem into lengthwise quarters
woody part into lots of little bits
peel bits from the bark/fiber part
- Do not
peel the fiber off the woody bits. You will get more short and broken
fibers which are not desirable.
- Work the
fiber back & forth over an edge, like a table or a board, to remove
- Wet the
fiber by running it through your mouth, avoiding the corners.(water
does not work as well)
- Take a
cleaned segment and grasp it between thumb & forefingers of both
hands, off-center and about 4-6 inches apart.
- With your
dominant hand, roll the fiber away from you, simultaneously rolling
toward you in the non-dominant hand.
- When it
is fully twisted and kinking back on itself, brings your hands together
so that the fiber winds up into a
- Hold the
end loop in your non-dominant hand, pinched between thumb &
forefinger, with 1 end higher than the other.
the top piece (#1) away from you between your thumb & index finger,
then holding it & the lower
segment (#2) under tension, twist the top piece toward over the lower
- #2 is
now on top, and #1 on bottom.
from * until you have miles of cordage.
moving the non-dominant hand down after every few twists, to
keep the place where the cord forms pinched tight.
- The wider
the angle of the V between the 2 segments of the cord as you twist toward
tighter the cord.
- As one
end starts to thin or run out, add another segment so that it
overlaps the old piece & gets caught in the V.
keep the ends uneven so that you don't have to add more fiber on both
sides at once--makes it
weak, and lumpy.
good, lumpy bad, especially if the end product is
wanted for weaving clothing.
a short Quiz to test your knowledge of the Botai culture
to main page [links to Virtual Museum, Art Gallery, Class]